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LID - Low Impact Development Case Studies

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Project Name
Project Summary
Ann Arbor District Library, Mallets Creek Branch

Soil restoration at Mallets Creek Library to enhance vegetation

Soil is a key ingredient in effective stormwater and water quality management, making proper care of soils a key component of low impact development.

Soil restoration is a technique used to enhance and restore soils by physical treatment and/or mixture with additives - such as compost - in areas ...
Black River Heritage Trail and Waterfront Redevelopment

Native revegetation along a walkway

Native revegetation includes the restoration of forest savanna (scattered trees among prairie plants), and/or prairie, and the conversion of turf to prairie - all taking place outside of riparian buffers, or other specially protected areas. Ideally, this BMP should be considered only after the areas of development that require ...
City of Battle Creek City Hall Runoff

Green roof on City of Battle Creek Police Department building

Vegetated roofs, or green roofs, are conventional rooftops that include a thin covering of vegetation allowing the roof to function as a vegetated surface. The overall thickness of the vegetated roof ranges from 2 to 6 inches, typically containing multiple layers consisting of waterproofing, synthetic insulation, non-soil engineered growth media, ...
Combination BMP - Pokagonek Edawat Housing Development

Pokagon Edawat Housing Development bioswale

The Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians Tribal Development used nine LID BMPs to arrive at an overall strategy that protects and uses natural flow pathways and preserves natural features in overall stormwater planning and design for their Pokagonek Edawat Housing Development, located in Dowagiac, MI. This development also maximized stormwater ...
Constructed Linear Sand Filter

Sand filter in the City of Wayne, MI

This BMP is a two-chambered linear concrete structure that improves water quality by providing sedimentation and filtration to the stormwater runoff. The site for this BMP serves a 0.9 acre parking lot at two senior citizen housing complexes in the City of Wayne, Michigan. The drainage area to the filter ...
Ford Road Outer Drive Vegetated Filter Strip

Ford Road-Outer Drive Grow Zone after the first growth

In 2006, Wayne County Parks eliminated the existing turf grass and seed bank on 5.3 acres of Hines Park along Ford Road and Outer Drive by applying herbicide and tilling the area. Preparation of the areas included shallow tilling and reseeding with native plant species to create a vegetated filter ...
Grand Valley State University Porous Pavement Parking Lots

GVSU Parking Lot

Pervious pavement is an infiltration technique that combines stormwater infiltration, storage, and structural pavement consisting of a permeable surface underlain by a storage reservoir. Pervious pavement is well suited for parking lots, walking paths, sidewalks, playgrounds, plazas, tennis courts, and other similar uses.

A crucial project for Grand Valley State University ...
Grayling Stormwater Project

Typical Grayling Rain Garden

The Grayling Stormwater Project is an example of a hybrid project that combines LID with end-of-pipe treatment. This project demonstrates that a small community is capable of making the fundamental shift towards LID and providing leadership for other communities to make similar changes. The measures taken will eliminate approximately 80% ...
Inkster Valley Constructed Wetlands Project

Inkster Valley constructed wetland

Detention basins are surface (or underground) stormwater structures that provide temporary storage of stormwater runoff to prevent downstream flooding. The primary purpose of the detention basin is the attenuation of stormwater runoff peaks. Generally, detention basins may be dry ponds, wet ponds, constructed wetlands, or underground systems.

Constructed wetlands are shallow ...
Kresge Foundation Headquarters (1 of 2)

Porous pavers

The site for Kresge Headquarters is a historic farmstead set within the context of a completely altered landscape on a commercial business site in Troy, MI. The 2.76-acre site is a small oasis within a larger suburban-scale, corporate landscape.

The Kresge site attempts to recreate historical hydrology as an essential component ...
Kresge Foundation Headquarters (2 of 2)

Bioswale along parking lot

The site for Kresge Headquarters is a historic farmstead set within the context of a completely altered landscape on a commercial business site in Troy, MI. The 2.76-acre site is a small oasis within a larger suburban-scale, corporate landscape.

The Kresge site attempts to recreate historical hydrology as an essential component ...
LaVista Storm Drain Project

Screening vortex device with floating debris

Various proprietary, commercially available BMPs have been designed to remove non-point source pollutants from the conveyance system for stormwater runoff. These structural BMPs vary in size and function, but all use some form of filtration, settling, or hydrodynamic separation to remove particulate pollutants from overland or piped flow. The devices ...
Lawrence Technological University - A. Alfred Taubman Student Services Center

Green roof with sedum at Lawrence Technological Universitys Taubman Student Services Center

The 42,000 square-foot A. Alfred Taubman Student Services Center (TSSC), located on the Lawrence Technological University Campus in Southfield, MI, not only meets the requirements of the student services functions it is designed to house, but is also a "living laboratory" of sustainable design and engineering. Built to U.S. Green ...
Longmeadow Development

View of Existing Wetland

Longmeadow is 400 acres of rolling land divided by ponds, meadows, clusters of trees, wetlands, and horse paddocks in Niles, MI. The development was picked by The Conservation Fund as a demonstration project in the State of Michigan for watershed protection, and maintained by the development’s home owner’s association.

The design ...
Macomb County Public Works Riparian Corridor Preservation

View of riparian buffer on Macomb County Public Works premises

Macomb County Public Works incorporated LID techniques into the development of their new public works building. One element of the property is a 35 acre riparian area located along the North Branch of the Clinton River. The county is committed to preserving this riparian corridor and is researching the option ...
Marywood Health Center

Native prairie vegetation in natural flow pathway

When the new Marywood Health Center was designed and constructed, care was taken to make a building and setting that met the needs of the nuns, preserved the natural beauty of the area, protected the creek, and preserved the natural topography.

The stormwater from the roof of the new health center ...
Meadowlake Farms Bioswale

Meadowlake Farms Bioswale

A vegetated swale (or bioswale) is a shallow stormwater channel that is densely planted with a variety of grasses, shrubs, and/or trees designed to slow, filter, and infiltrate stormwater runoff. Check dams can be used to improve performance and maximize infiltration, especially in steeper areas.

Vegetated swales are broad, shallow, earthen ...
Michigan Avenue Streetscape Bioretention Facilities

Bioretention in Planter Box along Michigan Avenue, Lansing, Michigan

Planter boxes receive runoff from multiple impervious surfaces, which is used for irrigation of the vegetation in the planter box preventing stormwater from directly draining into nearby sewers. They also play an important role in urban areas by minimizing stormwater runoff, reducing water pollution, and creating a greener and healthier ...
Mid Towne Village

Underground system at Mid Towne Village, Grand Rapids, MI

Mid Towne Village is a mixed-use urban redevelopment project located in Grand Rapids, MI in Kent County, designed to provide a unique setting that contains a walkable community of residential, retail, and office uses (182,000 sq ft.).

The site was previously an older residential neighborhood consisting of 40 homes. Mid Towne ...
Minimizing soil compaction near an oak tree

Fencing around oak tree to minimize soil compaction

Minimizing soil compaction is not only important for drainage of a site, but also for minimizing impacts to established vegetation. In order to protect a culturally significant pin oak tree, the City of Troy utilized orange construction fencing at the drip line of the tree to protect the roots from ...
Nankin Mills Interpretive Center Grow Zone Project

Grow zone around Nankin Mills Pond, Wayne County, MI

A riparian buffer is a permanent restoration area of trees, shrubs, and herbaceous vegetation adjacent to a water body that serves to protect water quality and provide critical wildlife habitat. A riparian buffer is designed to intercept surface runoff and subsurface flow from upland sources for the purpose of removing ...
Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians Pokagonek Edawat Housing Development

Cluster development at Pokagonek Edawat Housing Development

The Dowagiac River Watershed Management Plan was used as the basis for the design principles in this project which led to integrating LID techniques into the development.

This Native American housing development used nine LID BMPs to arrive at an overall strategy to protect and use natural flow pathways and preserve ...
Quarton Lake Remediation

Aerial view of Quarton Lake remediation, Birmingham, MI

The Quarton Lake restoration project included shoreline stabilization using bioengineering techniques, creating fish habitat, an assessment of the tributary stream corridor, and dredging of sediment which accumulated in Quarton Lake during the past 30 years. The stream assessment included a streambank erosion inventory and severity index based on Michigan Department ...
Saugatuck Center for the Arts Stormwater Disconnection

Center for the Arts stormwater disconnection

The Saugatuck Center for the Arts (SCA), in conjunction with the City of Saugatuck, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, and private donors constructed a public garden that treats rain water that falls on the SCA roof. The original design was modified to accommodate rain water that would otherwise have entered ...
Saugatuck Center for the Arts Subsurface Infiltration Beds

Installation of subsurface infiltration system

The Saugatuck Center for the Arts (SCA), in conjunction with the City of Saugatuck, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, and private donors constructed a public garden that treats rain water that falls on the SCA roof. The original design was modified to accommodate rain water that would otherwise have entered ...
Stormwater Capture with an Underground Cistern

Fairmount Square underground cistern tank

Capture reuse is the practice of collecting rainwater in a container and reusing it in the future. Also known as storage/reuse, rainwater harvesting, and rainwater catchment system.

This structural BMP reduces potable water needs while simultaneously reducing stormwater discharges. When rain barrels or cisterns are full, rooftop runoff should be ...
Towar Rain Garden Drains

Rain garden one year after establishment

The Towar Rain Garden Drains used LID to completely retrofit a rain garden stormwater system in a neighborhood setting. Located in Meridan Township and the City of East Lansing in Ingham County, MI, the system consists of two concurrent drain projects (Towar Snell Drain & Towar Gardens and Branches Drain) ...
Washtenaw County West Service Center

Washtenaw County West Service Center level spreader

Level spreaders promote infiltration and improve water quality by evenly distributing flows over a stabilized, vegetated surface. This allows for better infiltration and treatment. There are several different types of level spreaders. Examples include concrete sills, earthen berms, and level perforated pipes.

Washtenaw County West Service Center civic buildings are located ...
Western Michigan University - Business, Technology, and Research Park

Protection of existing native woodlands and wetlands, Kalamazoo, MI

Over 20 acres of this 200-acre development in Kalamazoo, MI was designated for a unique storm water treatment system which contained the preservation of natural features including woodlands and riparian corridors. In addition, other LID practices were also implemented on this site including prairie restoration. Multi-cell ponds, bio-retention, and wetlands ...
Willard Beach Implementation Project

Pervious asphalt at Willard Beach Park

The primary goal of the City of Battle Creek's Willard Beach Park Project consists of showcasing LID practices to community residents by installing porous asphalt throughout the park roadway system and rain gardens. By implementing these two LID techniques, the amount of impervious material on site was reduced. The project ...